Other prominent Renaissance sculptors include Lorenzo Ghiberti, Luca Della Robbia, Donatello, Filippo Brunelleschi and Andrea del Verrocchio. [81] Italy first felt huge economic changes in Europe which led to the commercial revolution: the Republic of Venice was able to defeat the Byzantine Empire and finance the voyages of Marco Polo to Asia; the first universities were formed in Italian cities, and scholars such as Thomas Aquinas obtained international fame; Frederick of Sicily made Italy the political-cultural centre of a reign that temporarily included the Holy Roman Empire and the Kingdom of Jerusalem; capitalism and banking families emerged in Florence, where Dante and Giotto were active around 1300.[24]. At the end of the 17th century, the Arcadians began a movement to restore simplicity and classical restraint to poetry, as in Metastasio's heroic melodramas. Four different seas surround the Italian Peninsula in the Mediterranean Sea from three sides: the Adriatic Sea in the east,[160] the Ionian Sea in the south,[161] and the Ligurian Sea and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the west. International Organizations and Groups", The Economist Intelligence Unit's quality-of-life index, "The World Health Organization's ranking of the world's health systems", "The essence of Italian culture and the challenge of the global age", "Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protostoria", "CORPS GRAS ET OBESITE Acides gras alimentaires et obésité : aspects qualitatifs et quantitatifs", "II 1987: Uomini e vicende di Magna Grecia", "East–West Orientation of Historical Empires", "Giuseppe Garibaldi (Italian revolutionary)", "Everything you need to know about March 17th, Italy's Unity Day", General Roatta's war against the partisans in Yugoslavia: 1942, "Italia 1946: le donne al voto, dossier a cura di Mariachiara Fugazza e Silvia Cassamagnaghi", "Commissione parlamentare d'inchiesta sul terrorismo in Italia e sulle cause della mancata individuazione dei responsabili delle stragi (Parliamentary investigative commission on terrorism in Italy and the failure to identify the perpetrators)", "Secret Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO's Stay-Behind Armies", "Clarion: Philip Willan, Guardian, 24 June 2000, p. 19", "New Arrests for Via D'Amelio Bomb Attack", "Sentenza del processo di 1º grado a Francesco Tagliavia per le stragi del 1993", "Audizione del procuratore Sergio Lari dinanzi alla Commissione Parlamentare Antimafia – XVI LEGISLATURA (PDF)", "Mario Monti appoints technocrats to steer Italy out of economic crisis", "New Italian PM Paolo Gentiloni sworn in", "What will Italy's new government mean for migrants? [429] Giuseppe Peano was one of the founders of analytic philosophy and contemporary philosophy of mathematics. [104][105] The Kingdom of Sardinia again attacked the Austrian Empire in the Second Italian War of Independence of 1859, with the aid of France, resulting in liberating Lombardy. [460] Singers such as Mina, Andrea Bocelli, Grammy winner Laura Pausini, Zucchero, Eros Ramazzotti and Tiziano Ferro have attained international acclaim. [335][note 2]. Standardisation was further expanded in the 1950s and 1960s due to economic growth and the rise of mass media and television (the state broadcaster RAI helped set a standard Italian). Guido Santevecchi: Di Maio e la Via della Seta: «Faremo i conti nel 2020», siglato accordo su Trieste in Corriere della Sera: 5. The Italian judicial system is based on Roman law modified by the Napoleonic code and later statutes. There are more than 800,000 followers of faiths originating in the Indian subcontinent with some 70,000 Sikhs with 22 gurdwaras across the country. It was legally merged into the administrative unit of Italy in 42 BC by the triumvir Octavian as a ratification of Caesar's unpublished acts (Acta Caesaris). [314] The diaspora concerned more than 25 million Italians and it is considered the biggest mass migration of contemporary times. Italy has a written democratic constitution, resulting from the work of a Constituent Assembly formed by the representatives of all the anti-fascist forces that contributed to the defeat of Nazi and Fascist forces during the Civil War.[200]. Following the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the political and social Italian unification movement, or Risorgimento, emerged to unite Italy consolidating the different states of the peninsula and liberate it from foreign control. Nearly half a million Italians (including civilians) died in the conflict,[120] and the Italian economy had been all but destroyed; per capita income in 1944 was at its lowest point since the beginning of the 20th century.[121]. In the early 1980s, the first star to emerge from the Italian hip hop scene was singer Jovanotti. Ennio de Giorgi, a Wolf Prize in Mathematics recipient in 1990, solved Bernstein's problem about minimal surfaces and the 19th Hilbert problem on the regularity of solutions of Elliptic partial differential equations. The country also has regional airlines (such as Air Dolomiti), low-cost carriers, and Charter and leisure carriers (including Neos, Blue Panorama Airlines and Poste Air Cargo. The main historic peoples of possible non-Indo-European or pre-Indo-European heritage include the Etruscans of central and northern Italy, the Elymians and the Sicani in Sicily, and the prehistoric Sardinians, who gave birth to the Nuragic civilisation. However, the conflict for the investiture controversy (a conflict over two radically different views of whether secular authorities such as kings, counts, or dukes, had any legitimate role in appointments to ecclesiastical offices) and the clash between Guelphs and Ghibellines led to the end of the Imperial-feudal system in the north of Italy where city-states gained independence. Tennis has a significant following in Italy, ranking as the fourth most practised sport in the country. [420], In the late 19th century, a realistic literary movement called Verismo played a major role in Italian literature; Giovanni Verga and Luigi Capuana were its main exponents. [239] Italy was the world's 7th largest exporter in 2016. The high volcanic and magmatic neogenic activity is subdivided into provinces: Italy was the first country to exploit geothermal energy to produce electricity. Through the centuries, Italy has fostered the scientific community that produced many major discoveries in physics and the other sciences. The time of Italy's rebirth was heralded by the poets Vittorio Alfieri, Ugo Foscolo, and Giacomo Leopardi. In 1935, Mussolini invaded Ethiopia and founded the Italian East Africa, resulting in an international alienation and leading to Italy's withdrawal from the League of Nations; Italy allied with Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan and strongly supported Francisco Franco in the Spanish civil war. Towards the middle of the 13th century, Medieval art and Gothic painting became more realistic, with the beginnings of interest in the depiction of volume and perspective in Italy with Cimabue and then his pupil Giotto. Recent analytic philosophers include Carlo Penco, Gloria Origgi, Pieranna Garavaso and Luciano Floridi. Click. [221], Italy is constituted by 20 regions (regioni)—five of these regions having a special autonomous status that enables them to enact legislation on additional matters, 107 provinces (province) or metropolitan cities (città metropolitane), and 7,960 municipalities (comuni). [369], Education in Italy is free and mandatory from ages six to sixteen,[370] and consists of five stages: kindergarten (scuola dell'infanzia), primary school (scuola primaria), lower secondary school (scuola secondaria di primo grado, upper secondary school (scuola secondaria di secondo grado) and university (università). Moreover, Italy annexed the Hungarian harbour of Fiume, that was not part of territories promised at London but had been occupied after the end of the war by Gabriele D'Annunzio. [436], Early and important Italian feminists include Sibilla Aleramo, Alaide Gualberta Beccari, and Anna Maria Mozzoni, though proto-feminist philosophies had previously been touched upon by earlier Italian writers such as Christine de Pizan, Moderata Fonte, and Lucrezia Marinella. [402] A popular achievement of Italian Renaissance architecture was St. Peter's Basilica, originally designed by Donato Bramante in the early 16th century. [286] The Montalto di Castro Photovoltaic Power Station, completed in 2010, is the largest photovoltaic power station in Italy with 85 MW. As of 2010, the foreign born population of Italy was from the following regions: Europe (54%), Africa (22%), Asia (16%), the Americas (8%) and Oceania (0.06%). Whether that's setting up your own servers, putting a raspberry Pi to work or getting the most from the best apps. The so-called "Second Republic" was born by forceps: not with a revolt of Algiers, but formally under the same Constitution, with the mere replacement of one ruling class to another: sfn error: no target: CITEREFCushman-RoisinGačićPoulain2001 (. Historically, Italy has been successful in the Olympic Games, taking part from the first Olympiad and in 47 Games out of 48. ", "African migrants fear for future as Italy struggles with surge in arrivals", "Italy starts to show the strains of migrant influx", "Italy's Conte forms coalition of bitter rivals, booting far-right from power", "New Italian government formed, allying M5S and the center-left | DW | 4 September 2019", "Coronavirus: Italy extends emergency measures nationwide", "From confidence to quarantine: how coronavirus swept Italy", "Coronavirus, Conte firma il nuovo Dpcm: in semi-lockdown per un mese. Introduced in the early 1920s, jazz took a particularly strong foothold in Italy, and remained popular despite the xenophobic cultural policies of the Fascist regime. In 2014, challenged by the new Secretary of the PD Matteo Renzi, Letta resigned and was replaced by Renzi. The Constitutional Court of Italy (Corte Costituzionale) rules on the conformity of laws with the constitution and is a post–World War II innovation. Italy is known for its considerable architectural achievements,[398] such as the construction of arches, domes and similar structures during ancient Rome, the founding of the Renaissance architectural movement in the late-14th to 16th centuries, and being the homeland of Palladianism, a style of construction which inspired movements such as that of Neoclassical architecture, and influenced the designs which noblemen built their country houses all over the world, notably in the UK, Australia and the US during the late 17th to early 20th centuries. In the context of the 1848 liberal revolutions that swept through Europe, an unsuccessful first war of independence was declared on Austria. [129] One year later (May–July 1993), tourist spots were attacked, such as the Via dei Georgofili in Florence, Via Palestro in Milan, and the Piazza San Giovanni in Laterano and Via San Teodoro in Rome, leaving 10 dead and 93 injured and causing severe damage to cultural heritage such as the Uffizi Gallery. While the classical music tradition still holds strong in Italy, as evidenced by the fame of its innumerable opera houses, such as La Scala of Milan and San Carlo of Naples (the oldest continuously active venue for public opera in the world),[448] and performers such as the pianist Maurizio Pollini and tenor Luciano Pavarotti, Italians have been no less appreciative of their thriving contemporary music scene. Italy is one of the world's leading producers of pumice, pozzolana, and feldspar. [407], The history of Italian visual arts is significant to the history of Western painting. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Over the next few years, Mussolini banned all political parties and curtailed personal liberties, thus forming a dictatorship. The 1814 Congress of Vienna restored the situation of the late 18th century, but the ideals of the French Revolution could not be eradicated, and soon re-surfaced during the political upheavals that characterised the first part of the 19th century. Also, Andrea Palladio influenced architects throughout western Europe with the villas and palaces he designed in the middle and late 16th century; the city of Vicenza, with its twenty-three buildings designed by Palladio, and twenty-four Palladian Villas of the Veneto are listed by UNESCO as part of a World Heritage Site named City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto. On the other hand, the rivers are numerous due to the relative abundance of rains and to the presence of the Alpine chain in northern Italy with snowfields and glaciers. Italy has for centuries welcomed Jews expelled from other countries, notably Spain. [170] The second longest Italian river is Adige, which originates near Lake Resia and flows into the Adriatic Sea, after having made a north–south route, near Chioggia. Ma per me ce la stiamo cavando bene", "Un uomo solo è al comando dell'Italia, e nessuno ha niente da ridire", "Italy's lockdown will be extended, prime minister says as death toll spikes and hospitals struggle", L'Italia pagherà il conto più salato della crisi post-epidemia, Mario Draghi sworn in as Italy's new prime minister, "Mario Draghi's new government to be sworn in on Saturday", "Principali dimensioni geostatistiche e grado di urbanizzazione del Paese", "Morphometric and hydrological characteristics of some important Italian lakes", Organisation hydrographique internationale, "Italy's Po River Punished for centuries by destructive floods, northern Italians stubbornly embrace their nation's longest river, which nurtures rice fields, vineyards, fisheries—and legends". [505], Other festivals include the carnivals in Venice, Viareggio, Satriano di Lucania, Mamoiada, and Ivrea, mostly known for its Battle of the Oranges. The Mediterranean diet forms the basis of Italian cuisine, rich in pasta, fish, fruits and vegetables and characterised by its extreme simplicity and variety, with many dishes having only four to eight ingredients. Clockwise from left: Metropolitan cities and larger urban zone. [498], Examples of Italy's military. Mediterranean Quarterly, 29(2), 54–69. Following the fall of Constantinople, the wars in Lombardy came to an end and a defensive alliance known as Italic League was formed between Venice, Naples, Florence, Milan, and the Papacy. In 2012, the Italian secondary education was evaluated as slightly below the OECD average, with a strong and steady improvement in science and mathematics results since 2003;[372] however, a wide gap exists between northern schools, which performed significantly better than the national average (among the best in the world in some subjects), and schools in the South, that had much poorer results. Baldissara, Luca & Pezzino, Paolo (2004). Italian explorers and navigators from the dominant maritime republics, eager to find an alternative route to the Indies in order to bypass the Ottoman Empire, offered their services to monarchs of Atlantic countries and played a key role in ushering the Age of Discovery and the European colonization of the Americas. Trieste has the highest percentage of researchers in Europe in relation to the population. Renewable sources account for the 27.5% of all electricity produced in Italy, with hydro alone reaching 12.6%, followed by solar at 5.7%, wind at 4.1%, bioenergy at 3.5%, and geothermal at 1.6%. 33 Italian universities were ranked among the world's top 500 in 2019, the third-largest number in Europe after the United Kingdom and Germany. [151], In February 2021, after a government crisis within his majority, Conte was forced to resign and Mario Draghi, former president of the European Central Bank, formed a national unity government supported by almost all the main parties,[152] pledging to oversee implementation of economic stimulus to face the crisis caused by the pandemic. As with many other literary genres, Roman dramatists was heavily influenced or tended to adapt from the Greek. [47] According to Cato and several Roman authors, the Alps formed the "walls of Italy". In August 2006 Italy deployed about 2,450 troops in Lebanon for the United Nations' peacekeeping mission UNIFIL. In the same period, Emilio Salgari, writer of action adventure swashbucklers and a pioneer of science fiction, published his Sandokan series. Giuseppe Occhialini received the Wolf Prize in Physics for the discovery of the pion or pi-meson decay in 1947. Jeep flag grill. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was almost entirely unified in 1861, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. [307] In addition, Venice and Florence are also among the world's top 100 destinations. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs; it is both a regional power[35][36] and a great power,[37][38] and is ranked the world's eighth most-powerful military. There are also active volcanoes: Mount Etna in Sicily (the largest active volcano in Europe), Vulcano, Stromboli, and Vesuvius (the only active volcano on mainland Europe). In particular, the construction of the Suez Canal intensified sea trade with East Africa and Asia from the 19th century. [373], Tertiary education in Italy is divided between public universities, private universities and the prestigious and selective superior graduate schools, such as the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. [133] The Communists reorganised as a social-democratic force. As of 2013[update], Italy was deploying 5,296 troops abroad, engaged in 33 UN and NATO missions in 25 countries of the world. [146] The measures, despite being widely approved by the public opinion,[147] were also described as the largest suppression of constitutional rights in the history of the republic. November 2019. This was in turn struck down by a referendum following the Fukushima nuclear accident. [324], In 2016, Italy had about 5.05 million foreign residents,[327] making up 8.3% of the total population. The fall of Constantinople led to the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy, fueling the rediscovery of Greco-Roman Humanism. Italian physician and educator Maria Montessori is credited with the creation of the philosophy of education that bears her name, an educational philosophy now practiced throughout the world. Italian Renaissance authors produced a number of important works. [173] Other notable lakes in the Italian peninsula are Trasimeno, Bolsena, Bracciano, Vico, Varano and Lesina in Gargano and Omodeo in Sardinia. The remainder is primarily dedicated to pastures (25.9%) and feed grains (11.6%).[262]. [371], Primary education lasts eight years. [note 1] Other worldwide-known mountains in Italy include the Matterhorn (Monte Cervino), Monte Rosa, Gran Paradiso in the West Alps, and Bernina, Stelvio and Dolomites along the eastern side. These scenari are highly structured and built around the symmetry of the various types in duet: two zanni, vecchi, inamorate and inamorati, among others. [158] The Apennine Mountains form the peninsula's backbone, and the Alps form most of its northern boundary, where Italy's highest point is located on Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) (4,810 m or 15,780 ft). [358][359] Often incorrectly referred to as "the Vatican", the Holy See is not the same entity as the Vatican City State,[clarification needed] which came into existence only in 1929. [367][clarification needed], The Italian state, as a measure to protect religious freedom, devolves shares of income tax to recognised religious communities, under a regime known as Eight per thousand. [26] Centuries of foreign meddling and conquest and the rivalry and infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left Italy politically fragmented, and it was further conquered and divided among multiple foreign European powers over the centuries. The Roman Republic initially conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the Italian peninsula, eventually expanding and conquering parts of Europe, North Africa and Asia. [342] Italian is often natively spoken in a regional variety, not to be confused with Italy's regional and minority languages;[343][344] however, the establishment of a national education system led to a decrease in variation in the languages spoken across the country during the 20th century. Filippo Tommaso Marinetti wrote Manifesto of Futurism, called for the use of language and metaphors that glorified the speed, dynamism, and violence of the machine age. [150] The pandemic caused also a severe economic disruption, in which Italy resulted as one of the most affected countries. 12 °C (54 °F) in Sicily, so average summer temperatures range from 20 °C (68 °F) to over 25 °C (77 °F). [482] Significant changes occurred with the discovery of the New World with the introduction of items such as potatoes, tomatoes, bell peppers and maize, now central to the cuisine but not introduced in quantity until the 18th century. Some bands of this genre are Black Box, East Side Beat, and 49ers. [380] Smoking in public places including bars, restaurants, night clubs and offices has been restricted to specially ventilated rooms since 2005. Easy to follow guides and original insightHaving an incredible PC is all well and good, but it's what you do with it that matters. Doric colonists founded Taras, Syrakousai, Megara Hyblaia, Leontinoi, Akragas, Ghelas; the Syracusans founded Ankón and Adria; the megarese founded Selinunte. Formula 1 was also held at Imola (1980–2006, 2020) and Mugello (2020). [157] Including the islands, Italy has a coastline and border of 7,600 kilometres (4,722 miles) on the Adriatic, Ionian, Tyrrhenian seas (740 km (460 mi)), and borders shared with France (488 km (303 mi)), Austria (430 km (267 mi)), Slovenia (232 km (144 mi)) and Switzerland (740 km (460 mi)). Italian unification was completed and shortly afterwards Italy's capital was moved to Rome. 141–145. [421] In 1883, Carlo Collodi also published the novel The Adventures of Pinocchio, the most celebrated children's classic by an Italian author and the most translated non-religious book in the world. [365], Soaring immigration in the last two decades has been accompanied by an increase in non-Christian faiths. Students are given a basic education in Italian, English, mathematics, natural sciences, history, geography, social studies, physical education and visual and musical arts. [259] The youth unemployment rate (31.7% in March 2018) is extremely high compared to EU standards. Nuria Sanz, Sjur Bergan: "The heritage of European universities", 2nd edition, Higher Education Series No. Milan, Florence and Rome are Italy's main fashion capitals. The Italian Renaissance marked the transition from the medieval period to the modern age as Europe recovered, economically and culturally, from the crises of the Late Middle Ages and entered the Early Modern Period. Erotic Italian thrillers, or giallos, produced by directors such as Mario Bava and Dario Argento in the 1970s, also influenced the horror genre worldwide. The Italian economy declined during the 1600s and 1700s, as the peninsula was excluded from the rising Atlantic slave trade. The country gave a fundamental contribution to the victory of the conflict as one of the "Big Four" top Allied powers. [193] Italy's varied geological structure contributes to its high climate and habitat diversity. Italian Neoclassical sculpture focused, with Antonio Canova's nudes, on the idealist aspect of the movement. Today, the most notable centres of jazz music in Italy include Milan, Rome, and Sicily. [379] However, healthcare is provided to all citizens and residents by a mixed public-private system. Cinema was later used by Benito Mussolini, who founded Rome's renowned Cinecittà studio for the production of Fascist propaganda until World War II. [178], After its quick industrial growth, Italy took a long time to confront its environmental problems. Another important work of the period, Ludovico Ariosto's Orlando Furioso, continuation of Matteo Maria Boiardo's unfinished romance Orlando Innamorato, is perhaps the greatest chivalry poem ever written. 2. Whether you're building from scratch, upgrading your own machine, or just looking for that perfect peripheral to complete you dream build, you'll find only the very best hardware gets the Maximum PC seal of approval. The most famous Italian wines are probably the Tuscan Chianti and the Piedmontese Barolo. Italy (Italian: Italia [iˈtaːlja] (listen)), officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica Italiana [reˈpubːlika itaˈljaːna]),[13][14][15][16] is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and several islands surrounding it. [57] [394] Italy has had a central role in Western culture for centuries and is still recognised for its cultural traditions and artists. [245][246] It is a member of the Eurozone which represents around 330 million citizens. [29] Despite being one of the four main allied powers in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of the Italian fascist dictatorship in 1922. Travelling troupes of players would set up an outdoor stage and provide amusement in the form of juggling, acrobatics and, more typically, humorous plays based on a repertoire of established characters with a rough storyline, called canovaccio. [168] Taking into consideration their origin, the Italian rivers can be divided into two main groups: the Alpine-Po rivers and the Apennine-island rivers. The most important of these poets was the notary Giacomo da Lentini, inventor of the sonnet form, though the most famous early sonneteer was Petrarch. The Italian Peninsula, named Italia, was consolidated into a single entity during the Roman expansion and conquest of new lands at the expense of the other Italic tribes, Etruscans, Celts, and Greeks. Quality goods in which Italy specialises, particularly the already mentioned wines and regional cheeses, are often protected under the quality assurance labels DOC/DOP. Alboreto competed in Formula One from 1981 until 1994, racing for a number of teams, including five seasons (1984–88) for Ferrari. "Hydrology, Water Resources and Ecology in Headwaters". Starting from the early 1980s, until then a linguistically and culturally homogeneous society, Italy begun to attract substantial flows of foreign immigrants. The birth of the Kingdom of Italy was the result of efforts by Italian nationalists and monarchists loyal to the House of Savoy to establish a united kingdom encompassing the entire Italian Peninsula. However, air pollution remains a severe problem, especially in the industrialised north, reaching the tenth highest level worldwide of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in the 1990s. In the north, the Germans set up the Italian Social Republic (RSI), a Nazi puppet state with Mussolini installed as leader after he was rescued by German paratroopers. The new Kingdom of Italy obtained Great Power status. [469] Italian clubs have won 48 major European trophies, making Italy the second most successful country in European football. Highly diverse its international Security activities Maritime exclave in Tunisian waters ( ). Multinational empires in 2011, and Gerolamo Cardano ( 1501–1576 ) made fundamental advances in mathematics recent immigration Italy... 18Th century, playwright Carlo Goldoni created full written plays, many Italian left-wing activists adopted the pro-working. A descendant of ancient Greek painting the Concordat of Worms also held at Imola 1980–2006. 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